Analgesics are medicines that are used to relieve pain. They are also known as painkillers or pain relievers. Technically, the term analgesic refers to a medication that provides relief from pain without putting you to sleep or making you lose consciousness.
Many different types of medicines have pain-relieving properties, and experts tend to group together those medicines that work in a similar way. Two of the most common groups of pain killers are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids (narcotics), but there are many more.
Antidiarrheals are the name given to certain types of medicines that stop or slow diarrhoea. Antidiarrheals only relieve the symptoms of diarrhea, such as an increased frequency and urgency when passing stools, they do not eliminate the cause of it. This means that as soon as you stop taking an antidiarrheal, diarrhea will return unless whatever has caused it has run its course. Some antidiarrheals work by slowing down intestinal contractions, increasing the time it takes for the contents of the bowel to be excreted. This allows more water to be absorbed from the bowel back into the body, reducing the water content of the stool. Others work by bulking up the stool, increasing its volume with fiber-like substances.
Antiviral drugs are recommended for both treatment and prevention of flu. Antiviral drugs work best when taken within 48 hours of onset of flu symptoms, but they may still offer benefits when taken later. These medications may reduce the duration of flu by one to two days and prevent severe flu complications. Allergies occur when the body’s immune system responds to a substance it considers an “invader.” Substances that provoke the immune system into an allergic response are known as allergens. There is no such thing as a universal allergen. What might trigger a life-threatening allergic response in one person might cause absolutely no harm in another. The physiological mechanism of allergic reactions is the same, however, in everyone. Allergens enter the body — either through ingestion, inhalation or contact with the skin or mucus membranes. This causes white blood cells to release an antibody which then binds to what are known as mast cells. The mast cells rupture – and in the process, release biochemical substances including histamine. Mild allergy symptoms include itchy, watery eyes, a runny nose, scratchy throat and a rash. More severe, life-threatening allergy symptoms include swelling of the throat, wheezing and difficulty breathing.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. There are many classes of antihypertensives, which lower blood pressure by different means. Among the most important and most widely used drugs are thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers.